local history, and perhaps certain of the Latin classics, too. The Catholic Habsburg monarchy was quite entangled with the Ottomans throughout the Reformation period. Locke had strong aversion to these central Christian dogmas. The Islamic tradition required just a minimal creed that there is No God but One God and Muhammad is His prophet. Scholasticism and Humanism: The Eurocentric interpretations of medieval scholasticism portray it as a totally homegrown and uniquely European phenomenon. Typically, it was Catholic forces and funds that resisted the advance of the Ottoman Empire. Indian, Persian, Chinese and Greek sciences were all sought after. What he has not seen clearly, I despair of ever seeing. This long and gradual change was negotiated through the Islamic medium. Other Islamic sciences such as philosophy, rational theology or Kalam and other natural sciences were taught and discussed outside Madrassa in various libraries, homes and study circles. All sorts of Venetian merchants lived and interacted with local Muslim officials, businessmen and merchants in the Middle East. The contemporary French thinker Jean Bodin wrote: "The great emperor of the Turks does with as great devotion as any prince in the world honour and observe the religion by him received from his ancestors, and yet detests he not the strange religions of others;.
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In England during the Restoration period (beginning with 1660) the Socinianism appears to have extended its influence to the highest levels. Martin Mulsow observes that Socinianism or, broader: anti-trinitarianiism was often paralleled to Islam: both the Christian heresy and the Muslim religion reject the doctrine of the Trinity and regard Jesus only as a prophet, not as a god.
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Al-Shatibi, the Spanish Muslim jurist, summarized objectives of the Islamic Shariah into five: Preservation of Life, Religion, Family, Property and Reason. Moreover, it had essays the pros and cons of technology many commercial relations with Mohammedan countries, while King Roger conducted campaigns in Northern Africa and Frederick II made an expedition to Palestine. It is a set of irrational dogmas which promote theodicy, theocracy, barbarism, totalitarianism and terrorism. The history of the Inquisitions is well known. Luther considered Islam as Gods scourge for sinning Christians who among other things have tolerated papal abominations. Lockes writings were part of Benjamin Franklins self-education, and John Adams believed that both girls and boys should learn about Locke. Dissenters were declared heretics and burned alive without any due process or jury.
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, isiss barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website.