and Public Affairs, 14:2 (Spring 1985. Pope John Paul II, following his personalist philosophy, argued that a danger of utilitarianism is that it tends to make persons, just as ap english language and composition argument essay much as things, the object of use. Parfit 104 and others 105 have criticized Taurek's line, and it continues to be discussed. This seems to tip the balance in favour of saying that Mill is best classified as an act utilitarian. Finally, it is necessary to consider the extent, or the number of people affected by the action. American Political Science Review. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. "A Critique of Elie Halévy: refutation of an important distortion of British moral philosophy" (PDF). Retrieved Oliphant, Jill (2007).
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Forms of hedonism were put forward by Aristippus and Epicurus ; Aristotle argued that eudaimonia is the highest human good and Augustine wrote that "all men agree in desiring the last end, which is happiness." Happiness was also explored in depth by Aquinas. But it is the intention, that is, the foresight of consequences, argumentative essay on alcohol advertising which constitutes the moral rightness or wrongness of the act." 120 The correct interpretation of Mill's footnote is a matter of some debate. In the long run the best proof of a good character is good actions; and resolutely refuse to consider any mental disposition as good, of which the predominant tendency is to produce bad conduct. Citation needed The philosopher John Taurek also argued that the idea of adding happiness or pleasures across persons is quite unintelligible and that the numbers of persons involved in a situation are morally irrelevant. International Website for Utilitarianism and Utilitarian Scholar's Conferences and Research Utilitarianism as Secondary Ethic A concise review of Utilitarianism, its proponents and critics. 33 Mill also says that people should pursue these grand ideals, because if they choose to have gratification from petty pleasures, some displeasure will eventually creep. The rule being that we should only be committing actions that provide pleasure to society. 1 Historical background edit Chinese philosophy edit In Chinese philosophy, the Mohists and their successors the "Chinese Legalists" citation needed might be considered utilitarians, or at least the "earliest form of consequentialism ". By this I mean the principle that, in deciding what is good and what is bad for a given individual, the ultimate criterion can only be his own wants and his own preferences." 55 :55 Harsanyi adds two caveats. Of Philosophy, Uppsala: University Printers,. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. His being infinitely happy in himself from all eternity, and from his goodness manifested in his works, that he could have no other design in creating mankind than their happiness; and therefore he wills their happiness; therefore the means of their happiness: therefore that.